∑ strong endings ∑ strong class I ∑ strong class II ∑ strong class III ∑ strong class IV ∑ strong class V ∑ strong class VI ∑ strong class VII (reduplicated) ∑ weak class 1 ∑ weak class 2 ∑ weak class 3 ∑ weak class 4 ∑ preterito-presentic verbs ∑ the copula ∑ the medio-passive inflexion ∑
STRONG VERBS CLASS II
The strong verbs of the 2nd class have the stem vowel /jú/, /jó/ or /ú/. When they are i-umlauted they all turn to /ý/ though (not /jý/ or /jú/!). In the preterite tense it changes into /au/ in the singular and /u/ in the plural. In the perfect it's also /u/ or /o/.
This verb class consists of verbs from roots that in PIE had the diphtong /eu/, which turned into /ju:/ in ON, but evolved into /jo:/ before dentals. In stead of /eu/ the proto-germanic vowel could also be a long /u:/, which remained unchanged in ON. The PIE perfect had the o-grade in the singular and the zero-grade in the plural and the participle. This gives us the ON stem vowels/diphtongs /au/ (< ou) and /u/ (< u).
For the origin of the inflexional endings, see the "strong endings" page.
© Peter Pettersson