nouns: · a-stems · va-stems · ja-stems · ia-stems · ô-stems · vô-stems · jô-stems · iô-stems · i-stems · u-stems · an-stems · ôn-stems · în-stems · nd-stems · root nouns · r-stems ·
nouns: ROOT NOUNS
are either masculine or feminine. They were originally both inflected alike, but in OIcel. the singular forms of the masculine ones are borrowed from either the a-stems (maðr) or the u-stems (fótr). The only thing that really differs from the a- or u-stem inflection is that the plural nom. and acc. endings are both -r. The very same thing is the difference between the feminine root nouns and the ô-stems.
A few feminine nouns of this class, though, have the very old nominative ending -r (+ i-umlaut), like the masculine ones, and some have the ending -r (+ i-umlaut) in the genitive.
The root nouns have their origin in PIE root nouns, i.e. suffixless nouns:
masc. sing. nom: -R < -z < -s ; gen: =u-stem or =a-stem ; dat: ; acc: -u < -un < -m
masc. plur. nom: -iR < -iz < -es ; gen: =a-stem ; dat: =a-stem ; acc: -iR < =nom.
fem. sing. nom: =ô-stem ; gen: =ô-stem ; dat: =ô-stem ; acc: -u < -un < -m
fem. plur. nom: -iR < -iz < -es ; gen: =a-stem ; dat: =a-stem ; acc: -iR < =nom.
© Peter Pettersson